Learning Outcomes Assessment

Institutional Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

Lincoln University Institutional Learning Outcomes (ILOs) express a shared, campus-wide articulation of expectations for all degree recipients. Success in all disciplines taught at Lincoln University requires knowledge, inquiry, imagination, creativity, collaboration, and analysis that serve to extend our understanding of the world. At our institution, we strive to graduate professionals who are able to handle personal and civic challenges and opportunities. ILOs define the broad areas of knowledge, skills, abilities, and values that graduates are expected to develop as a result of general education, major studies, and co-curricular activities. Graduates of Lincoln University are able to:

Recognize problems, think critically, apply analytical reasoning, and propose solutions (ILO 1). This entails:

For BA/BS students: ability to develop habits and skills necessary for processing information based on intellectual commitment and using these skills to guide behavior.

For MBA/MS students: ability to recognize and work with the components of reasoning and problem solving; ability to understand concepts, assumptions, purpose, conclusions, implications, consequences, objections from alternative viewpoints, and frame of reference.

For DBA students: ability to incorporate various modes of thinking including scientific, economic, mathematical, historical, anthropological, and moral ones.

Communicate ideas, perspectives and values clearly while respectfully listening to others (ILO 2). This entails:

For BA/BS students: ability to raise important questions and problems and formulating them clearly and precisely in oral or written communication.

For MBA/MS students: ability to gather and assess relevant information, use abstract ideas to interpret it effectively, develop well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, and test them against relevant criteria and standards.

For DBA students: ability to operate within alternative systems of thought; recognize and assess the needs with related assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and communicate results effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.

Display professional behavior and act responsibly at local, national, and global levels (ILO 3). This entails:

For BA/BS students: ability to act with dignity and follow the principles concerning the quality of life of all people, recognize an obligation to protect fundamental human rights, and respect the diversity of all cultures.

For MBA/MS students: ability to be exemplary business professionals and ensure that the products of their efforts will be used in socially responsible ways, will meet social needs, and will avoid harmful effects to health and welfare.

For DBA students: as exemplary business professionals, ability to minimize the possibility of indirectly harming others by following accepted standards at local, national or international levels; ability to assess the likelihood of physical and social consequences of any developed product’s harm to others.

Work collaboratively and respectfully as members of diverse organizational teams (ILO 4). This entails:

For BA/BS students: ability to focus on individual and organizational benefits; communicate to co-workers and company’s leadership in facilitation of collaborative environment; be honest and transparent with regard to their work and be respectful of the work of others.

MBA/MS students: ability to lead by example to create highly collaborative organizational environment; ability to develop and use strategies to encourage employees at all organizational levels to do the same.

DBA students: ability to integrate collaboration into organizational workflows, create a supportive environment for collaboration and teamwork, and lead by example.

Demonstrate leadership skills through the ability to set directions and motivate others (ILO 5). This entails:

For BA/BS students: ability to display sincerity and integrity in all their actions based on reason and moral principles; ability to inspire others by showing mental and spiritual endurance.

For MBA/MS students: ability to set goals and have a vision of the future; as effective leaders, they should habitually pick priorities stemming from their basic values.

For DBA students: ability to have perseverance to accomplish a goal despite potential obstacles, use sound judgments to make decisions at a right time, and make appropriate changes in thinking, planning, and methods in achieving organizational goals.

Apply creativity and innovation in their field of study (ILO 6). This entails:

For BA/BS students: ability to show creativity by thinking of new and better goals, ideas, and solutions to problems; ability to become a resourceful problem solvers.

For MBA/MS students: ability to continually seek, develop, and offer new or improved services; ability to use original approaches when dealing with problems in the workplace.

For DBA students: ability to set up realistic goals for the organization, encourage innovative strategies, and convey a clear sense of future direction to employees.

Demonstrate expertise and integration of ideas, methods, theory and practice in a specialized discipline of study (ILO 7). This entails:

For BA/BS students: ability to define and explain the boundaries, divisions, styles and practices of the field; ability to define and properly use the principal terms in the field.

For MBA/MS students: ability to demonstrate fluency in the use of tools, technologies and methods in the field; ability to evaluate, clarify and frame complex questions or challenges using perspectives and knowledge from the business discipline.

For DBA students: ability to formulate and arrange ideas, designs, or techniques, and apply them to specific issues and problems; ability to apply current research, skills, and or/techniques in the field.

Program Learning Outcomes

GE Learning Outcomes (GELOs) for all Undergraduate Programs

The general education part of BA and BS programs empowers students to:

  • Communicate effectively in multiple creative and professional writing genres by applying Standard American English and appropriate software (GELO1).
  • Communicate effectively verbally in various professional and social contexts (GELO2).
  • Demonstrate proficiency in college-level mathematics, be able to represent mathematical information symbolically, visually, and verbally; interpret and apply quantitative methods to solve practical problems (GELO3).
  • Identify, evaluate, and synthesize information from relevant publications and reports (GELO4).
  • Apply critical thinking skills and common sense to approach and solve real-world problems. Demonstrate proficiency in skills that sustain lifelong learning, particularly to think critically and responsibly in assessing, evaluating, and integrating information (GELO5).
  • Obey the responsibilities of active citizenship, community engagement, social responsibility, and professional integrity (GELO6).

Specific for BA in Business Administration GE Learning outcome (BA GELO)

The general education part of BA in Business Administration program empowers students to:

  • Demonstrate understanding of natural and social sciences; humanities; history; and psychology – knowledge important for a successful business professional in 21st century.

Specific for BS in Diagnostic Imaging GE Learning Outcome (BS GELO)

The general education part of BS in Diagnostic Imaging program empowers students to:

  • Demonstrate understanding of natural sciences; humanities; history; psychology; and fundamental business principals – knowledge important for a successful operator of a diagnostic imaging office.

BA in Business Administration Program Learning Outcomes (BA PLOs)

Upon completion of the program, students receive a solid base in the areas of a modern commercial enterprise, as well as advanced preparation in an area of a concentration of their choice. The students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge in the principle areas of general business and specific areas of concentration, which include: international business, management, entrepreneurship, and management information systems (BA PLO1).
  • Determine the information needed to evaluate a business problem. Apply critical thinking and reasoning skills to recognize business reports credibility and accuracy (BA PLO2).
  • Demonstrate the ability to successfully cooperate with others using written and oral communication tools (BA PLO3).
  • Demonstrate the ability to formulate business problems and to identify proper tools to make well-informed decisions (BA PLO4).
  • Apply and comply with ethical and legal principles and evaluate business perspectives (BA PLO 5)

BS in Diagnostic Imaging Program Learning Outcomes (BS PLOs)

Upon completion of the program, students should be able to examine patients at various medical facilities, perform ultrasound procedures, and manage and direct operations in ultrasound labs. The students will be skilled to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge of principles of ultrasound technology, medical terminology, physiology, sonography, and echocardiography(BS PLO1).
  • Demonstrate ability of proper patient positioning techniques for efficient use of imaging technology (BS PLO2).
  • Adept imaging procedures based on patient’s needs and clinical limitations (BS PLO3).
  • Practice effective oral and written communication skills in the clinical setting (BS PLO4).

MBA Program Learning Outcomes (MBA PLOs)

Upon completion of the program, students will be able to: 

  • Develop and exhibit applied and theoretical knowledge and effectively integrate quantitative problem-solving skills and technology to address real-world management problems (MBA PLO1).
  • Demonstrate organizational and leadership skills necessary for setting strategic objectives and effective implementation of decisions and policies for team performance  (MBA PLO2)
  • Integrate theoretical knowledge, problem-solving skills, and practical experiences to formulate solutions and identify risks conducting strategic analyses, operational planning and control in a typical business organization (MBA PLO3).
  • Evaluate and select decision-support methodologies to address issues related to global business enterprises (MBA PLO4).
  • Identify ethical problems in business organizations and reach decisions within moral organizational framework (MBA PLO5).
  • Conduct effective narrative communications, and present findings, orally or in written form to diverse professional audiences that allow critiques of strategic matters (MBA PLO6).
  • Demonstrate autonomy and creativity for managing complex professional practices (MBA PLO7).

MS in International Business Program Learning Outcomes (MSIB PLOs)

Students graduating from MS in International Business degree program are expected to have a set of skills and knowledge that makes them very attractive employment candidates for business firms seeking new international management-level talent. They will be able to:

  • Demonstrate expert level understanding of major theories and concepts of International Business to make informed business management decisions (MSIB PLO1).
  • Effectively apply appropriate qualitative and quantitative techniques and technology to address and solve real-world international business problems (MSIB PLO2).
  • Identify global business opportunities and associated challenges and apply acquired management skills to solve problems related to global business enterprises (MSIB PLO3).
  • Recognize ethical issues in global business organizations, apply the standards of moral behavior in various countries, and implement proper ethical decision-making framework in international organizations (MSIB PLO4).
  • Develop and exhibit effective narrative communications, and present reports and findings, orally or in written form to diverse professional audiences (MSIB PLO5).

MS in Finance Management Program Learning Outcomes (MSFM PLOs)

Students graduating from MS in Finance Management (FM) program are expected to have a demonstrable set of skills and knowledge that makes them very attractive employment candidates for business firms seeking new financial management-level talent. They will be able to:

  • Demonstrate expert level understanding of major theories and concepts of Finance Management including international finance and securities, commercial banking and lending, investments to real estate and stock market to make informed business management decisions (MSFM PLO1).
  • Effectively apply appropriate qualitative and quantitative techniques and technology to address and solve real-world financial problems for a company (MSFM PLO2).
  • Identify and evaluate diverse financing and finance management scenarios and demonstrate the finance management skills needed to address problems in each scenario (MSFM PLO3).
  • Recognize ethical issues in the domain of finance management, apply the standards of moral behavior in various situations, and implement proper ethical decision-making framework in an organization (MSFM PLO4).
  • Develop and exhibit effective narrative communications, and present reports and findings, orally or in written form to diverse professional audiences (MSFM PLO5).

DBA Program Learning Outcomes (DBA PLOs)

Completing DBA Program students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate advanced knowledge and competence in the latest academic theories, concepts, and techniques in the field of business administration (DBA PLO1).
  • Evaluate advanced theories, and concepts for relevance to business research and decision-making (DBA PLO2).
  • Apply concepts, quantitative methods, and recognized methodologies in conducting independent research and demonstrate effective skills including formulation of research problem; integration of previous publications into an appropriate literature review; design of a research study; data analysis; ability to summarize and present the results (DBA PLO3)
  • Locate, and evaluate the validity and reliability of reference materials and sources relevant to the doctoral program courses and dissertation topic (DBA PLO4)
  • Analyze and assess ethical obligations of active citizenship, community engagement, and professional integrity essential to comply with standards for ethical and socially responsible behavior in the conduct of research and responsible management (DBA PLO5).
  • Create and present advanced forms of oral and written communications, including teaching and student advising (DBA PLO6).
  • Apply the knowledge from the area of specialization and provide consulting to other business industries or other fields (DBA PLO7).